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FEB, 2018

People of African descent who were forced to leave Africa over 400 years ago have always had the desire to go back to Mother Africa. There were African communities and individuals in the Caribbean, England and North America who returned or were repatriated back to Africa during slavery and after emancipation. Under the leadership of many unsung heroines and heroes, there are accounts of many who returned from the USA and the Caribbean to Liberia and from England to Sierra Leone and have made valuable contribution to those societies. In the nineteenth century, spearheaded by African descendants in the USA, the back-to-Africa movements have encouraged persons of African descent to return to their African homelands. They have spurred similar movements in the diaspora. They are not only concerned with physical repatriation but with socio-political and economic conditions on the African continent. This movement can be traced back to the nineteenth century with many unsung heroes and heroines who questioned the status quo and called for African unity.
In the nineteenth century, Trinidadian Lawyer, Henry Sylvester Williams was a key figure involved in the formation of a Pan African Association, which has been sustained by others. Williams through his wife, met a South African woman who narrated the story of Apartheid in South Africa, brought together a group of individuals who wanted to change the lives of Africans living under colonial rule. He was supported with moral and financial contributions from various individuals and the Church of England to initiate what he called a Pan African Movement not in Africa but in the heart of the Colonial Empire in London. He and the pioneer members of this movement went on to organize the first Pan African Congress. It included Africans living in England, Africans from the continent especially Anglophone West Africa, African descendants from USA and the Anglophone Caribbean. This took place in July 1900 in London with the purpose of giving political rights for self-determination for the then subjects of the British colonies south of the Sahara especially South Africa. This movement acted as a forum of protest against the European savagery in the African pacification projects and was consolidated as a Pan Africanist Movement.

William Dubois from USA championed the cause after S. Williams, by organizing a series of Pan Africanist Congresses in 1919, 1921 and 1923 in Paris, Lisbon and other capitals of the colonial powers of Europe. The fourth PAC was organized in 1927 by the Women’s International Circle for Peace and Foreign Relations, a black women’s club in New York led by Addie W. Hunton, Nina Du Bois, and Minnie Pickens. In 1945, George Padmore organized the watershed Pan African conference of 1945, which brought together the future leaders of the future independent British African colonies like Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya, Hastings Banda of Malawi and Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana. The Second World War had led to an almost universal feeling among Africans and people of African descent of colonial liberation. The consciousness of the racial and undemocratic reality as well as popularity of black internationalism had increased in the inter-war years, this contributed to the militancy of the conference by Africans and persons of African descent. The 1947 Pan African Congress was the last of its kind to take place during the first half of the twentieth century.

In between 1930 and the 60’s there was the Francophone entry on to the Pan Africanist Movement led by Leopold Sedar Senghor and Aime Cesaire propagating their philosophical perspective and concept of Negritude. The Lusophone Africans were left behind until Amilcar Cabral as part of the Africans and African descendants group of the anti-colonialists, activists and freedom fighters, gave impetus to further defining and strengthening the framework for creating synergy between those descendants and the mother Africa. This is evident in both Cabral and Fanon who introduce culture as a construct of struggle and vice versa. Cheikh Anta Diop also came on to the scene with his studies of Egypt (Egyptology) and its connection to the Africans as the rulers and builders of Egypt and intellectual exploits as part. In addition he called for a United States of West Africa. Nkrumah considered the father of Pan Continentalism, brought in the North of Africa as an extension of the Pan Africanist Movement. These persons were committed to total emancipation of Africa from colonialism and neo-colonialism, self-reliance, self-determination and Pan African solidarity. They however, subscribed to different ideological paths that were to lead to emancipation, while Garveyites were in favor of capitalism, the Du Boisian ideology, similar to George Padmore were socialist in orientation.
The Negritude group was more concerned with the glorious past of Africa in the world than with ideological postures especially the socialist models for the Sub-Saharan countries of Africa. A. Marcus Garvey, a charismatic politico-economic visionary and an organic intellectual created the first and so far the best black empowerment and wealth creation project in history. This is yet to be replicated. Garvey gave a pragmatic economic underpinning to the ideological concept. He was successful in establishing UNIA Chapters in Africa, the Caribbean, Latin America, India, Australia and key American cities but could have been better off but for the lack of support and solidarity from the African-American elites and leaders in USA. This later brought his movement into conflict with the US Government who jailed and deported him. The lack of solidarity, self–reliance and envy is still the bane of progress in the current 6th Region.
Post Marcus Garvey, the Williams, Dubois and Nkrumah era has led to continuous debatable intellectual discussions, activities and efforts in African diaspora and Africa (South of the Sahara) on whether to build on Pan Continentalism (to include the Arabs in North Africa) rather than concentrate on the origin of the concept, Pan Africanism, which was for Sub-Saharan Africa. There is no doubt that there is no similarity in terms of philosophy, languages and history between Pan Africanism and Pan Arabism. These differences cannot be wished away.
Further, the struggle and sometimes the war for the independence in African countries from the European colonialists in 50s, the independence of most African and Caribbean states (except Haiti), the creation of the OAU in the 60s led to heightened consciousness of the people of African descendant in Brazil, Hispanic and Dutch speaking countries of South and Central America of their connection to Africa. From the late 60s however, there was a recession of Pan African ideology, which saw a slump in the synergy and interaction between Africa and its descendants. This was because of the rise of statist nationalism. It was not until the 80s and 90s when the impetus for unity was revived through the push for the end of apartheid in South Africa. This became a global agenda and the African-Americans took the lead in getting the USA to take a stand and convince other western countries to bring that repressive system to an end.
By the end of 1990s and early 2000 a new crop of enlightened leadership were in control of key countries in Africa with Nigeria and South Africa pushed by Libya to create the African Union replacing the OAU. With it, the 6th Region, for all Africans living outside the Sub-Saharan African Countries was born.  The AU 6th Region comprises:
a. Non-Resident Africans who in the last 50 – 100 years have voluntarily found themselves living permanently outside Africa in Europe, North America, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean.
b. Non-Resident Africans who were taken by force centuries ago from Africa to those places mentioned above and including those from North Africa.
It is important to note that the UNESCO publication, General History of Africa - Volume 9, has covered the historical events but with some important gaps. This colloquium seeks to fill one of these gaps as the theme above demonstrates, through a book project.
This necessitates that we engage in discussion of the thought and practice of leading Africanist personalities responsible for:
⦁ The Back to Africa Movements by discussing their intellectual and pragmatic  philosophy, thoughts and legacies of pre 1900s
⦁ The inception of Pan Africanism from 1900 to the first half of the twentieth century
⦁ The post 1945 which saw the rise of African nationalism which led to the independence of African countries (with many liberation wars) and the birth of the OAU up to 1990s. During this period, the Pan African discourse was shifted from an anti-imperialist one to a regional economistic operation in alliance with and at the directive of imperialism.
⦁ The post 1960s which also saw the independence of Caribbean states. Focus on national independence projects in both regions meant that states were looking inward. Limits of state nationalism also led to regionalism.
⦁ Keeping Pan Africanism alive within this period which can be considered as an interregnum of the movement
⦁ Transformation of the OAU into AU with the inclusion of the 6th Region and the beginning of another historical era of Global Africanism 
These discussions will include the philosophical, political and economic thoughts and legacies of these historical personalities.
As a follow-up to the above, the objectives of the intended Colloquium at the FREEDOM PARK, PRETORIA, SOUTH-AFRICA are to identify the sung and unsung personalities of those movements in global Africa (from the Continent and Diaspora) and discuss them in line with the theme above.
The 4-day Colloquium seeks to bring together Historians, Sociologists, Political Scientists, Economists, Philosophers, Anthropologists and activists from Africa, the Americas, Europe and Asia. The programme will be in the form of paper/presentations and panels to guide the open discussion. Each Panel will have a Moderator who will give a summary of discussion at the end of the session.
Call for Papers:
The Colloquium programme will focus on the following and related subthemes:
⦁ The Back to Africa Movement
⦁ The Foundations of Pan Africanism – Pre 1900 era - Sylvester Williams, Marcus Garvey and others
⦁ The Pan Africanist Movement – The conceptual framework – Early 1900s – Dubois, Padmore, C.L.R. James etc
⦁ Mid 1900s Pan Africanist Movement and a movement of Nkrumahism, Negritude
⦁ African nationalist movement – Kenyatta, Nkrumah, Mugabe, and others
⦁ Post Colonial Pan Africanism and Movement
⦁ The OAU and the Diaspora 1960’s – 2000. The gap years – Nkrumah, Sedar Senghor, Diop, Rodney
⦁ Post OAU – Pan Africanism vs Pan Continentalism or Pan Africanism + Pan Arabism within the AU, Diaspora 6th Region in 21st Century Framework. The new thinkers Shanti, Prah, Asante, Nabudre, Chinweizu, Campbell
⦁ The underpinning of the framework – The Caribbean descendants forum
⦁ The Design of the conceptual framework for AU’s 6th Region – Political Economic, Cultural and Social
⦁ Women and Pan Africanism
⦁ Pan Africanism and Rastafarianism
⦁ Pan Africanism and Religion
⦁ The viability of Pan Africanism in the 21st century
⦁ Representations in  documentaries, film and literature
Who should Attend?
⦁ Academics: historians, sociologists, political scientists, economists, philosophers and anthropologists
⦁ Researchers
⦁ Authors
⦁ Undergraduate and Postgraduate students
⦁ Educators and teachers – Primary and Secondary Schools
⦁ African Diaspora groups and organizations
⦁ Managers and policy-makers in Government, Inter-governmental and Non-governmental Organizations
⦁ Staff of Research Councils and Agencies
⦁ Government Stakeholders especially Ministries of Education and Ministries of Culture
⦁ Religious Communities and Organizations
⦁ Civic Organizations including the youth, women and disabled
⦁ Private Sector
⦁ Documentary makers and filmmakers
⦁ Playwrights
Paper Submission Guidelines:
Paper/presentation proposals based or related to one or more of the above themes are invited from the interested public: Historians, Sociologists, Political Scientists, Economists, Philosophers, Anthropologists and activists as well as religious/spiritual communities and organizations, policy makers, and INGOs/NGOs from Africa, the Americas, Europe and Asia. Interested panelists are invited to submit a paper/abstract proposal (max. 200 words), stating institutional affiliation, on or before JUNE, 2017. Abstract proposals and all correspondences regarding the conference should be sent electronically (email) to the conference secretariat and panafstraginternationl@gmail.com. Successful applicants will be informed by AUGUST, 2017. Papers presented will be considered for a book/journal publication through a peer review process. Drafts of paper are expected to be submitted by 30 OCTOBER, 2017. Following the acceptance of abstracts, presenters will be given specific guidelines for writing their draft papers. Conference registration details will follow on the conference website:
Hosting Institutions (TO): AIRS AND TMALI (UNISA) University of West Indies, Cave Hill, Barbados, the Diaspora Commission of Barbados, African Studies Association of Africa, National Historical Archives of South African, Historical Society of South Africa and Pan African Strategic Policy and Research Group, Lagos, Nigeria
Scientific Committee: (TBD)

Paper Submission Guidelines:
All manuscripts must be written in British English and Spanish. Manuscripts submitted in American English will be edited for consistency.
Finished manuscripts should be between 6,000-7,000 words, including references. This will be somewhere between 20-25 single-sided, double-spaced manuscript pages. Papers exceeding 7,000 words will be edited for length.
For notes and references, use the short-title system (not the author-date system) as per Butcher’s Copy-editing: The Cambridge Handbook for editors, Copy-editors and proof readers, 4th edition (2006). 
⦁ Atiyah, PS, The Damages Lottery (Oxford, Hart Publishing, 1997)
⦁ Atiyah, PS, ‘Personal Injuries in the Twenty-First Century: Thinking the Unthinkable’ in P Birks (ed), Wrongs and Remedies in the Twenty-First Century (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1996) 5–38
Suggested Paper Outline
While the content and purpose of the chapter will ultimately dictate the arrangement of the material, we offer the following paper structure as a starting place. Keep this and any specific requests from the conference organizers in mind as you draft the paper.
Abstract – 200 words (max).
Introduction and paper “map.” A brief overview of the paper, its theme, and purpose.
Development of your topic. What are the primary or related issues – heroes, heroines, and movement? Why is this topic important? Include historical or theoretical background or reference current debate, if relevant. 

Conclusions and recommendations to readers.
Quotes and Extracts
All material taken from previously published sources—whether quoted directly or paraphrased—should be appropriately cited in the text and be accompanied by a corresponding citation in the reference list. Quotes of more than 40 words are treated as blocks. Extracts of 300 words or more require the permission of the copyright holder to be included. 
Similarly, figures or tables that are reprinted from previously published work require the permission of the copyright holder to be included. You are responsible for securing the necessary permissions for such material. 
Authors should include full names, brief biography (with institutional affiliation, and contact details, including mailing address and telephone number.
The editors reserve the right to alter all manuscripts to conform to the guidelines to improve accuracy, eliminate mistakes and ambiguity, and to bring the manuscript in line with the tenets of plain English language.
For submissions and any clarifications please refer to any of the following contact persons: TO BE CONFIRMED

Participation Fees:
Early bird registration: $100 till 7th October 2017
Late registration: $150 – 7th October 2017
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